Mace. Date: 17th century; Culture: Indo-Persian; Medium: Steel, gold Stock Photo: - Alamy
Persian Culture The history of carpet weaving in Persia dates back to the nomadic tribes. and B.C., taught followers to worship one god instead of the many deities worshipped by earlier Indo-Iranian groups. While the complex question of Indo-Iranian origins is not discussed here, . In the material culture from Period IV (of Achaemenid date) and the. conference on Persian literary culture in India. Allāh-Khudā'ī draws not only on classical models — such as earlier Indo-Persian glossary poems dating back.
In most cases, these dates function as a reliable terminus ante quem of the manuscript. Some examples, however, demonstrate that while many individuals updated their seals regularly--in several cases almost annually--a few prominent figures used the same seal for many years. On occasion, therefore, we can determine that a manuscript dated by colophon was written as much as ten years after the date supplied by the seal.
More important, seals furnish definitive documentation of the movement of manuscripts to the imperial Mughal library from far-flung parts of the Islamic world. For example, a royal manuscript of the Shahinshahnama written in Turkey about entered into the custody of one of Emperor Jahangir's librarians only seventeen years later; within a generation it had passed into the possession of the Mughal princess Jahanara and thence returned to the imperial library proper.
Likewise, only a decade after a luxurious Diwan of Shahi was written and illuminated in mid 16th-century Bukhara, it found its way into the personal library of Hamida Banu Begam, mother of Emperor Akbar.
The fall of the kingdoms of Bijapur and Golkonda to Mughal forces in the late 17th century resulted in the Mughal acquisition of hundreds of books, many of which subsequently entered British collections in the 19th century. Seals and accompanying annotations make it clear that some of these manuscripts were original commissions of these two Deccani courts, while others had been culled from other regional Indian kingdoms as well as Persian centers.
The Persian Book in Medieval India: Production, Circulation and Reception Najaf Haider Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi Manuscripts are important for our understanding of literary culture, and India has a rich history of multiple literary cultures which found expression in manuscripts written on a wide variety of subjects in many languages and dialects.
Manuscripts are monuments of the past and preserve the major part of literature, paintings and the traditional arts of handwriting, illumination and bookbinding. After coins, manuscripts have survived more than any other artefact from medieval India. This paper is about the physical form and intellectual content of Persian manuscripts as books in Mughal India.
We discuss the culture of reading among social groups and the reasons for authoring books; technology and use of paper and ink; the form of the book codex ; language, scripts and styles; the production of manuscripts in scriptorium and the role of scribes; the technique and art of manuscript illustration and decoration; collection and circulation of manuscripts in the Mughal era sales and gifts ; and how manuscripts have come down to us in their original, copied, edited and translated forms.
It is a survey based essentially on textual material and physical examination of Mughal manuscripts with the purpose of assembling empirical data on literary culture, its transmission as well as its material component. The literary assembly is also depicted as a place of debate where the Indo-Persian literary canon is constantly under discussion. We will investigate its role as a place of constant reshaping of tradition and of literary identities.
SOAS: North Indian Literary Culture () Indo-Persian Literature Conference
This will be the occasion to compare the regional literary assembly where Bengali language was used as the lingua franca, to the Persian speaking assembly that was addressing the wider public of the Persianate world. The idea of South: The idea that such claims may have roots as much in modern contexts of competition for scarce patronage as in the realities of the distant past is not a new one Neuman However, several prominent recent studies have gone further in arguing that the two art music systems of India, Hindustani and Karnatic music, were wholly "invented" as "classical" under late British colonial rule.
These studies detect a radical discursive break in the writings of important Indian musicologists c. A change in musical discourse undoubtedly accompanied the thoroughgoing modernisation of the Indian musical field at this time. However, the "break" is not as radical as it appears. A large number of the discursive markers these studies identify as unique to the modern colonial moment have exact parallels in a much earlier period of systematisation under the Mughals.
In this paper I will examine seven of these markers, identified in seventeenth-century Indo-Persian texts: I will argue that the commonality of such markers suggests that processes of classicisation may not be unique to the colonial, nationalist and modern moment.
In doing so I also aim to emphasise the importance of paying sufficient attention to pertinent precolonial contexts in the writing of post colonial history. The Mughal Book of War: While scholars have long been aware of the Razmnamah translation, few have seriously examined the methods and meanings of translating this text between literary cultures. This oversight has long masked the significance of this historical moment when Sanskrit and Persian literary cultures interacted with one another.
Rarely has the crucial question been posed: In the Razmnamah, the Mughals consciously adapted Sanskrit materials into Persian to produce a text with social, political, and literary implications. In this paper, I begin by outlining the major textual and social aspects of the Razmnamah, including the source Sanskrit texts and the basic methods of translation. These technical translation features lay the groundwork for how the Mughals understood the Mahabharata and their project in translating the text.
The bulk of the paper will go on to analyze the Razmnamah according to three paradigms of translation practices: These strategies radically change the texture and content of the Mahabharata in Persian.
- Indo-Persian culture
- Culture of Iran
The end result is truly a text between worlds that invokes a newly coined Indic resonance while bringing the text into Mughal political and Persian literary domains. From bombast to simplicity? In one of the ghazals, for example, Sauda even enters the allusive world of Sanskritic poetry by referring to such Hindu mythological figures as Arjuna.
This paper suggests that we can rather speak of a creative exploration of Persian ideas — this is especially true of the visual arts. History[ edit ] With the presence of Muslim culture in the region in the Ghaznavid periodLahore and Uch were established as centers of Persian literature.
The earliest of the "great" Indo-Persian poets was Amir Khusrow d. Delhi sultanate and the Mughal era[ edit ] See also: Indo-Persian culture and to varying degrees also Turkic culture flourished side-by-side during the period of the Delhi Sultanate — The invasion of Babur inthe end of the Delhi Sultanate, and the establishment of what would become the Mughal Empire would usher the golden age of Indo-Persian culture with particular reference to the art and architecture of the Mughal era.
The Mughal Era to the British Raj: Persian persisted as the language of the Mughals up to and including the year which marked the death of the Emperor Aurangzebgenerally considered the last of the "Great Mughals". Thereafter, with the decline of the Mughal empire, the invasion of Delhi by Nader Shah and the gradual growth initially of the Hindu Marathas  and later the European power within the Indian subcontinent, Persian or Persian culture commenced a period of decline although it nevertheless enjoyed patronage and may even have flourished within the many regional empires or kingdoms of the Indian subcontinent including that of the Sikh Maharaja Ranjit Singh r.
Persian as a language of governance and education was abolished in by the British and the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafareven if his rule was purely symbolic or ceremonial, was overthrown in by the British. The sultans were generous patrons of the Persian literary traditions of Khorasan, and latterly fulfilled a valuable role as transmitters of this heritage to the newly conquered lands of northern India, laying the foundations for the essentially Persian culture which was to prevail in Muslim India until the 19th century The Bahamani sultans actively recruited Persian or Persianized men in their administration.