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Tapewound and flatwound strings have a distinctive tone and sound. Some fretless basses have epoxy -coated fingerboards, or fingerboards made of an epoxy composite like micartato increase the fingerboard's durability, enhance sustainand give a brighter tone. Strings and tuning[ edit ] Main article: Bass guitar tuning Tuning machines with spiral metal worm gears are mounted on the back of the headstock on the bass guitar neck The standard design for the electric bass guitar has four stringstuned E, A, D and G,  in fourths such that the open highest string, G, is an eleventh an octave and a fourth below middle Cmaking the tuning of all four strings the same as that of the double bass E1—A1—D2—G2.
This tuning is also the same as the standard tuning on the lower-pitched four strings on a six-string guitar, only an octave lower. There are a range of different string types including all-metal strings, which are available in many varieties of winding or finishing, each of which produce different tone, including roundwoundflatwoundhalfwound, ground wound, and pressure wound ; as well as metal strings with different coverings, such as tapewound and wound with plastic coatings.
The variety of materials used in the strings gives bass players a range of tonal options.
In the s and early s, bassists mostly used flatwound strings with a smooth surface, which had a smooth, damped sound reminiscent of a double bass. In the late s and s, players began using roundwound bass strings, which produce a brighter tone similar to steel guitar strings, though flatwounds also remained in use by players seeking a vintage tone.
Roundwounds have a brighter timbre tone with longer sustain than flatwounds. A variety of tuning options and number of string courses courses are when strings are put together in groups of two, often at the unison or octave have been used to extend the range of the instrument, or facilitate different modes of playing, or allow for different playing sounds.
The most common are four, five, or six strings: Four strings with alternative tunings to obtain an extended lower range. Note positions on a right-handed four-string bass in standard E—A—D—G tuning from lowest-pitched string to the highest-pitched string, shown in sharpsshown up to the 12th fret, where the pattern repeats. The dots below the frets are often inlaid into the wood of bass necks, as a visual aid to help the player find different positions.
Note positions on a right-handed five-string bass in standard B—E—A—D—G tuning from lowest-pitched string to the highest-pitched string, shown in flatsshown up to the 12th fret, where the pattern repeats. Another common tuning on early s five-string basses added a high note instead of a low note: E—A—D—G—C, known as tenor tuning. This tuning is still popular among jazz and solo bassists. Some bassists like C as the lowest pitch because that's the lowest note on an upright bass with a Cand C is a common note in a few popular keys C e.
Steve Reich: Double Sextet/2x5 - PopMatters
Relative to a four-string bass, the fifth string provides a greater lower range with a low B, C, or A or a greater upper range with a high C or B is added and provides more notes for any single hand position. The earliest five string was created by Fender in The type of low B five-string was created by Jimmy Johnson as a custom instrument in While less common than four or five-string basses, they appear in Latin, jazz, and other genres, as well as in studio work where a session musician 's single instrument must be highly versatile, and to facilitate sightreading in the recording studio.
Alternative tunings for six-string bass include B—E—A—D—G—B, matching the first five strings of an acoustic or electric guitar with an additional low B, and E—A—D—G—B—E, completely matching the tuning of a six-string guitar but one octave lower allowing the use of guitar chord fingerings. Later, Jackson brought his ideas to Fodera and worked with Ken Smith to create a wider-spaced Contrabass guitar, which evolved to the modern six-string bass.
Eight and twelve-string models are both built on the same "course string" concept found on twelve-string guitarswhere sets of strings are spaced together in groups of two or three that are primarily played simultaneously.
These instruments typically have one of the strings in each course tuned an octave above the 'standard' string, although a fifth above is also used. Instruments with ten and fifteen strings, grouped in five courses, also exist, as do " extended-range basses " or ERBs with non-coursed string counts rivaling those of coursed-string basses. A bass guitar headstock with detuner set to D position Detunerssuch as the Hipshot, are mechanical devices the player operates with the thumb on the fretting hand to quickly retune one or more strings to a pre-set lower pitch.
Hipshots typically drop the E-string down to D on a four-string bass. Alternative range approaches[ edit ] Some bassists use other types of tuning to extend the range or get other benefits, such as providing multiple octaves of notes at any given position, or a larger tonal range.
Instrument types or tunings used for this purpose include basses with fewer than four strings one-string bass guitars,  two-string bass guitars, three-string bass guitars [tuned to E—A—D]  and alternative tunings e. This instrument, commissioned by bassist Garry Goodman, was an early example of a bass with more than six single course strings.
Adler's and string instruments have the same range as a grand piano. Yves Carbonne developed ten- and twelve-string fretless subbass guitars. Piccolo basses are cosmetically similar to a four-stringed electric bass guitar, but usually tuned one whole octave higher than a normal bass.
The first electric piccolo bass was constructed by luthier Carl Thompson for Stanley Clarke. Several companies manufacture piccolo sets that can be put on any regular bass, thereby converting any bass into a piccolo bass. Because of the thinner strings, a new nut may be required to hold the strings. The tuning varies with the personal tastes of the artist, as does the number of strings. Joey DeMaio from the heavy metal band Manowar plays with four strings on his piccolo bass.
Michael Manring has used a five-string piccolo bass in several altered tunings. The reason for the uneven scale length across strings is that it evens out the tension across all of the strings, it evens the timbre across the strings, and extending the lower string scales allows the string to produce harmonics that are more in tune with the fundamental. Dingwall Prima Artist - Fannet Frets Bass Guitar To keep proper pitch across all frets in a multi-scale bass guitar, a fanned fret design is applied to the fingerboard.
In this case, the frets extend from the neck of the instrument at an angle, in contrast to the standard perpendicular arrangement in standard neck designs, in which the fret spacing is wider for the long scale and closer for the short scale. This is not to be confused with perfect intonation across the whole neck, which is a feature of true temperament frets. Proponents of multi-scale and fanned frets designs also claim benefits such as comfort and better ergonomics .
Torzal Natural Twist is a bass guitar body and neck style invented by luthier Jerome Little from Amherst, Massachusetts. The designer claims that the ergonomic design increases efficiency of the hands, wrists and arms, which reduces the risk of developing repetitive strain injuries like carpal tunnel syndrome or tendonitis. This design is also beneficial to players who have already suffered from such injuries. This patented design differs from traditional bass guitar design by twisting the neck, and bringing the strings toward a more natural hand position at either end of the instrument.
The rotation at either side of the instrument in the direction of the hand creates a neck plane that models the natural motion of the hand as it reaches outward. The fretboard also forms a straight line at the location of each string, which should improve the ease of performance. The vibrations of the instrument's ferrous metal strings within the magnetic field of the permanent magnets in magnetic pickups produce small variations in the magnetic flux threading the coils of the pickups.
This in turn produces small electrical voltages in the coils.
These low-level signals are then strengthened by the bass amp's preamplifier electronic circuits, and then amplified with the bass amp's power amplifier and played through one or more speaker s in a cabinet. P-style, split-coil pickups Most basses have a volume potentiometer "pot" or "knob"which can be turned up or down, and a tone potentiometer, which rolls off the high frequencies when it is turned to the player's right.
Rumplestiltskin takes the ball and lets Jefferson choose whatever he finds appropriate, then tells Regina their work is done. Jefferson tells Regina there is someone who can help her, and that he can deliver him to her for a royal passport to have free range in traveling the kingdom.
Emma thinks he's lying. Hook claims he played dead to survive. Emma, Mulan, Mary Margaret and Aurora talk about leaving the ruins and finding a portal, and Hook chimes in that he knows the land well. Emma holds a knife to his throat.
In the present, Regina goes to find Dr. Whale in psychiatric ward of the hospital. Regina and Jefferson find Victor Frankensteinor "The Doctor", as he likes to be called, in her castle. Victor insists he needs a strong enough heart to survive the procedure and believes that the Enchanted Forest has magic hearts that are strong enough for just this sort of operation.
Regina refuses to use magic for evil, but knows where to find an enchanted heart. In present-day Storybrooke, Regina discovers Dr. Whale in one of the psychiatric rooms lying on the floor with one of his arms having been savagely ripped away. She demands to know why he took Daniel and if he brought him back. Whale confirms this, explaining that he made the mess they're in and that Daniel is now a monster.
In the past, Regina leads Victor and Jefferson to Cora's secret vault to pick out an enchanted heart. She calls her mother a monster.
Outside of a hospital room, Regina watches as Dr. Whale is being tended to for his injuries.
The Catch (2x5) Season 2 Episode 5 [The Bad Girl] >>> HD
David arrives and demands to know what is going on, as he believes she is culpable for Dr. Instead, she reveals what Dr.
Whale did to Daniel and how he was revived using an enchanted heart. Regina has no idea whose heart he took, but wants to go find Daniel. David won't allow her to do so without telling him where he might be. She strongly believes Daniel is acting similar to how David reacted coming out of his coma, and may have gone to the last place he remembers. She guesses Daniel is at the stables, which causes David to worry since it's where Henry currently is.
At the stables, Henry is grooming his horse. Suddenly, the other horses begin jumping and panicking in alarm.
Henry's horse is startled as well, and knocks the boy off his stool as it runs out of the stall. A shadow appears outside the stall as Daniel approaches Henry. In the present-day Enchanted Forest, Hook insists to Emma he's merely a blacksmith even as she, not believing his claim, begins tying him to a tree.
She whistles for ogres and the women begin walking away, which persuades him to be honest with them. He offers to help them find a way back to Storybrooke in exchange for not being left behind with the ogres—the catch is that he gets to go through the portal as well, revealing he wants revenge on Rumplestiltskin. Meanwhile, in present-day Storybrooke, Daniel moves closer to Henry and proceeds to choke him as Regina and David rush in.
Regina immediately begins begging him to let Henry go. Ever since the '60s, Reich has grasped at a variety of ideas to help make minimalism more vital in an ongoing era of flea-sized attention spans. Those techniques include phasing patterns, produced either in live duets or by tape loops, and the doubling of ensembles' size and sound by having them play alongside a recording of themselves.
It was the latter approach that earned Reich a Pulitzer in As a compromise, Eighth Blackbird agreed to "double-up" by playing against a slightly different prerecording of themselves, thereby capturing the subtle shift that is minimalism's calling card within a six-piece chamber group.
A year or so after "Double Sextet" was completed, Steve Reich approached the ever-reliable Bang on a Can organization to perform his "rock and roll" composition "2x5". And since the enormous, nebulous classical music conglomerate that is New York's Bang on a Can is accustomed to premiering relatively radical works from the likes of Glenn Branca, there was no problem finding volunteers to play the doubled-up arrangements for electric guitar, electric bass, pianos, and drums.
By playing against a loop of themselves, the quintet became a tentet. Now, inNonesuch has released the two compositions as a twofer: